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Civil Case

A lawsuit is called a civil case when it is between persons or entities in their private capacity or relations.

Criminal Case

A lawsuit is called a criminal case when the government (State of Arizona) is the plaintiff, and a person or persons on the other side (defendant(s)), are alleged to have violated a standard of conduct defined by the law as a crime.


A deposition is the testimony of a witness or party to a suit, given before trial, under oath, and recorded, just as if it were given in court.

Directed Verdict

After evidence has been presented and if no issue of fact remains for the jury to determine, the judge must direct a verdict for the party entitled to prevail.


An exhibit is a document or material produced and identified in court for the purpose of introducing it as evidence in the case. Each of these documents or objects is ordinarily given a letter or number in alphabetical or numerical sequence before it is offered in evidence.


A motion is a request made to the judge by the lawyer for one of the parties. Motions may be oral or written and are made to obtain an order, ruling, or direction in favor of the applicant.


In legal terms, this means that the lawyer has concluded the evidence they want to introduce at that stage of the trial.


A stipulation is an agreement between the lawyers to admit into evidence certain undisputed facts or issues during the course of the trial.


A subpoena is an official order to attend court at a stated time. The most common use of the subpoena is to summon witnesses to court for the purpose of testifying.

Voir Dire

The questioning of prospective jurors being selected to try a case, regarding their qualifications or any bias or prejudice, which would allow their removal through the use of challenges for cause or peremptory challenges.